Information and Resources on Gender Equality and Gender Research in Norway

International Treaties & Agreements

Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 34/180 of 18 December 1979, entry into force 3 September 1981, in accordance with article 27(1). CEDAW is the most authoritative UN human rights instrument to protect women from discrimination. It is the first international treaty to comprehensively address women's fundamental rights in politics, health care, education, economics, employment, law, property, and marriage and family relations.
Origin date: 1979
Beijing +10 Review
Review of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of the special session of the General Assembly entitled "Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-first century"; and current challenges and forward looking strategies for the advancement and empowerment of women and girls.
Origin date: 2005
Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
The Convention is a comprehensive treaty mainly focussed on the protection of victims of trafficking and the safeguard of their rights. It also aims at preventing trafficking as well as prosecuting traffickers. The Convention applies to all forms of trafficking; whether national or transnational, whether or not related to organised crime. It applies whoever the victim: women, men or children and whatever the form of exploitation: sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, etc. The Convention provides for the setting up of an independent monitoring mechanism guaranteeing parties' compliance with its provisions. Norway signed the Convention 16 May 2005.
Origin date: 2005
UN Special Rapporteur on trafficking
The former UN Commission on Human Rights adopted decision 2004/110, by which it decided to appoint, for a three-year period, a Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, to focus on the human rights aspects of the victims of trafficking in persons. In the same decision, the Commission invited the Special Rapporteur to submit annual reports to the Commission together with recommendations on measures required to uphold and protect the human rights of the victims.
Origin date: 2004
The Optional Protocol to the convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
Adopted by UN General Assembly resolution A/54/4 on 6 October 1999 and opened for signature on 10 December 1999, Human Rights Day, entry into force 22 December 2000. The Protocol enables women, subject to gender discrimination, to submit complaints both in groups or as individuals, to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women.
Origin date: 2000
Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security
Adopted by the Security Council at its 4213th meeting, on 31 October 2000. The resolution reaffirms the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peace-building, peacekeeping, humanitarian response and in post-conflict reconstruction and stresses the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security. Resolution 1325 urges all actors to increase the participation of women and incorporate gender perspectives in all United Nations peace and security efforts. It also calls on all parties to conflict to take special measures to protect women and girls from gender-based violence, particularly rape and other forms of sexual abuse, in situations of armed conflict. The resolution provides a number of important operational mandates, with implications for Member States and the entities of the United Nations system. The resolution text is available in 77 languages at PeaceWomen.
Origin date: 2000
Beijing + 5 Review
The outcome document of the twenty-third special session of the General Assembly (Beijing +5). A renewal of commitments to examine challenges and good practices in implementing the Beijing Platform of Action. 
Origin date: 2000
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
In September 2000, at the United Nations Millennium Summit, world leaders agreed to a set of time-bound and measurable goals and targets for combating poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women. The target date is 2015. The eight Millennium Development Goals form a blueprint agreed to by all the world's countries and all the world's leading development institutions. There are eight Millennium Development Goals. Gender equality within education is one of them.

Gender Equality & the Millennium Development Goals is a collaborative effort of the UN Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality, the OECD/DAC Network on Gender Equality, and the Multilateral Development Bank Working Group on Gender.
Origin date: 2000
Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000. The Protocol is intended to "prevent and combat" trafficking in persons and facilitate international cooperation against such trafficking. It provides for criminal offences, control and cooperation measures against traffickers. It also provides some measures to protect and assist the victims.

Norway ratified the Protocol in September 2003. In this connection, the Storting (Parliament) adopted an updated provision on trafficking in persons (section 224 of the General Civil Penal Code).
Origin date: 2000
Trafficking in Human Beings
Norway has ratified The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and its two supplementary Protocols that were signed in Palermo, Italy, in December 2000. The Trafficking Protocol recognizes the need for a combined approach that integrates effective prevention of trafficking with the prosecution of traffickers and the protection of human rights and the provision of assistance to victims of trafficking.
Origin date: 2000
The Office of the Special Adviser to the Secretary-General on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women (OSAGI)
The Office is headed by the UN Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women and comprises a Principal Social Affairs Office in charge of Gender Mainstreaming and the Focal Point for Women in the Secretariat. This Office was created on 1 March 1997.
Origin date: 1997
The Beijing platform of Action
Adopted at the Fourth Conference on Women in 1995. The platform identifies 12 critical areas of action needed to empower women and ensure their human rights;
  • women and poverty
  • education and training of women
  • women and health
  • violence against women
  • women and armed conflict
  • women and the economy
  • women in power and decision making
  • institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women
  • human rights of women
  • women and the media
  • women and environment
  • and the girl-child
Origin date: 1995
Women and the Media in the Beijing Platform for Action
According to the platform, UN member states should "increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and new technologies of communication." This includes the promotion of a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women in the media.
Origin date: 1995
National minorities (Jews, Kvens, Roma (gypsies), the Romani People (travellers) and Skogfinns) in Norway
The most important conventions as regards minorities are The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (Article 27), The European Charter on Regional or Minority Languages and the Council of Europe's Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. These conventions are relevant for both men and women, but they have gender specific provisions.
Origin date: 1995
UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences
The former UN Commission on Human Rights in resolution 1994/45, adopted on 4 March 1994, decided to appoint a Special Rapporteur on violence against women, including its causes and consequences. This was the first investigatory procedure with a mandate specifically concerning women. The Special Rapporteur has a mandate to collect and analyse comprehensive data, and to recommend measures aimed at eliminating violence against women at the international, regional and national levels.
Origin date: 1994
Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
Proclaimed by UN General Assembly resolution 48/104 of 20 December 1993. All states parties, in accordance with national legislation, should prevent, investigate and punish acts of violence against women, whether perpetrated by the state or private persons.
Origin date: 1993
The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
The office is the focal point for human rights within the United Nations system. The OHCHR is currently working towards bridging the gap between "specialized" and "mainstream" mechanisms as they relate to the human rights of women. The High Commissioner continues to emphasize the importance of integrating women's rights into a broader understanding of human rights.
Origin date: 1993
The United Nations Principles for Older Persons
Adopted by the General Assembly resolution 46/91 of 16 December 1991. The 18th principle states that: Older persons should be treated fairly regardless of age, gender, racial or ethnic background, disability or other status, and be valued independently of their economic contribution.
Origin date: 1991
The Convention on the Rights of the Child
Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by UN General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November, 1989, into force on 2 September, 1990, in accordance with article 49. The convention extends the prohibition on sex-based discrimination to all the rights set forth therein. A number of the articles in this Convention are also of special relevance to the girl-child.
Origin date: 1989
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by UN General Assembly resolution 39/46 of 10 December 1984, entry into force 26 June 1987, in accordance with article 27(1). The convention has no general provisions concerning gender, but the Committee Against Torture has included a gender perspective in its guidelines on the form and content of initial reports under article 19 to be submitted by states parties to the convention against torture.
Origin date: 1984
The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
The committee monitors progress for women made in countries that are states parties to Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The Committee reviews periodic reports of CEDAW states parties on national implementation of CEDAW obligations, and issues general recommendations, which elaborate the Committee's view of the treaty's obligations. Norway is obliged to submit regular reports on measures that have been carried out and on the progress that has been made in fulfilling the obligations imposed by CEDAW.
Origin date: 1982
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR)
Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976. Specific references to women and their rights are lacking in the CCPR, but the provisions of the instrument are clearly relevant to the situation of many women and are, of course, applicable equally to both women and men.
Origin date: 1976
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ESCR)
Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966, entry into force 3 January 1976. Specific references to women and their rights are lacking in the ESCR, but the provisions of the instrument are clearly relevant to the situation of many women and are, of course, applicable equally to both women and men.
Origin date: 1976
Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict
Proclaimed by UN General Assembly resolution 3318 (XXIX) of 14 December 1974.
Origin date: 1974
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
Adopted and opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 2106 (XX) of 21 December 1965 entry into force 4 January 1969. While specific references to women and their rights are lacking in the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the provisions of the instrument are clearly relevant to the situation of many women and are, of course, applicable equally to both women and men.
Origin date: 1965
Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages
Opened for signature and ratification by UN General Assembly resolution 1763 A (XVII) of 7 November 1962. Entry into force: 9 December 1964. 
Origin date: 1964
Convention on the Political Rights of Women
Opened for signature and ratification by General Assembly resolution 640(VII) of 20 December 1952, entry into force 7 July 1954. The convention states that: Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country directly or indirectly through freely chosen representatives, and has the right to equal access to public service in his country, and desiring to equalize the status of men and women in the enjoyment and exercise of political rights.
Origin date: 1952
Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others (1949)
Approved by General Assembly resolution 317 (IV) of 2 December 1949. Entry into force: 25 July 1951.
Origin date: 1949
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 1 says: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."
Origin date: 1948
The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW)
The commission was established in 1946 in order to prepare reports and to make recommendations to the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The main tasks of the Commission is the promotion of women's rights in a broad range of fields, as well as to develop recommendations and proposals for action on urgent problems in the field of women's rights. The Commission has also been given the task of reviewing and appraising the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action which was adopted by the 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women.
Origin date: 1946
The Preamble of the United Nations Charter
The Charter says “to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in equal rights of men and women and of nations small and large".
Origin date: 1945
The United Nations Charter
The UN Charter states: "to achieve international cooperation in (...) promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction to race, sex, language, or religion".
Origin date: 1945